اثر جهت دامنه و موقعیت کاشت بر میزان ظهور و زنده‌مانی نهال‌های حاصل از بذرکاری بنه، کیکم و ارژن در جنگل‌های ایلام

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان ایلام، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایلام، ایران

2 دانشیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات جنگل، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف بررسی میزان ظهور و زنده‌مانی نهال حاصل از کاشت بذرهای بنه، کیکم و ارژن در جنگل‌های دالاب ایلام در دو جهت جغرافیایی و پنج موقعیت کاشت (نوع پرستار) انجام گرفت. برای این منظور شش رویشگاه در جهت‌های جغرافیایی شمالی و جنوبی با ارتفاع به‌نسبت یکسان انتخاب شد. در هر رویشگاه یک ترانسکت در جهت عمود بر شیب دامنه پیاده شده و روی آن موقعیت‌های کاشت شامل زیر درخت، زیر درختچه، زیر بوته، کنار سنگ و فضای باز با رعایت سه تکرار مشخص شد. در هر یک از موقعیت‌های کاشت دوازده چاله حفر و بذر گونه‌های یادشده کاشته شد. تعداد نهال‌ها در فصل‌های بهار و تابستان 1397 و 1398 شمارش شد. بیشترین درصد چاله‌های دارای نهال بنه در جهت شمالی و در زیر تاج درخت و کنار سنگ و بیشترین درصد چاله‌های دارای نهال کیکم در زیر تاج درختان و درختچه‌ها بود. میزان ظهور ارژن واکنش معنی‌داری به هیچ یک از عوامل بررسی‌شده نشان نداد. بیشترین سهم از ظهور نهال متعلق به بنه و کمترین آن متعلق به کیکم بود. نتیجه‌گیری شد که میزان ظهور نهال تحت تأثیر جهت دامنه و موقعیت کاشت تغییر می‌کند، از این‌رو برای افزایش ظهور نهال بهتر است بذرکاری در عرصه در موقعیت‌های کاشت مناسب‌تر در هر جهت جغرافیایی انجام گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of aspect and seeding position on the seedling emergence and survival of wild pistachio, maple and almond by direct seeding in Ilam forests

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Hosseini 1
  • M. Pourhashemi 2
1 Associate Prof., Natural resources Research Dept. Ilam Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ilam, Iran.
2 Associate Prof., Forest Research Dept. Research institute of forests and rangelands, AREEO, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

This research aimed at studying the seedling emergence and survival rate of Pistacia atlantica, Acer monspessulanum and Amygdalus orientalis by direct seeding in Dalab forests of Ilam with two aspects and five seeding positions (nurse type). For this purpose, six sites were selected in the north- and south-facing slopes with the same altitude. In each site, one transect was established perpendicular to the slope, and the seeding positions including “tree”, “shrub”, ‘bush”, “rock” and bare spaces, by observing three replicates were determined. At each seeding position, 12 holes were dug and the seeds of the mentioned species were planted. The number of seedlings during the spring and summer of 2018 and 2019 years was counted. According to the results, the number of seedling of P. atlantica decreased in the second year compared to the first year and in summer compared to spring. The highest percentage of holes with seedlings of P. atlantica was found in northern aspect and under tree crown and next to the rock. The highest percentage of holes with A. monspessulanum seedlings was under tree crowns and shrubs. A. orientalis did not react to any of the examined factors. The most and least share of the seedling emergence were belonged to P. atlantica and A. monspessulanum, repectively. It was concluded that the rate of seedling emergence changes under the effects of aspects and seeding positions, so to increase the emergence rate of seedlings, it is better to sow in the field in more suitable seeding position in any aspect.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • aspect
  • Direct seeding
  • maple
  • Nurse
  • Wild Pistachio
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