تأثیر ارتفاع از سطح دریا و مؤلفه‌های خاک بر خصوصیات پوشش گیاهی (حوزۀ آبخیز اسالم)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد، گروه جنگلداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت

2 دانشیار، گروه جنگلداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت

3 دانش‌آموختۀ دکتری علوم جنگل، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف ارزیابی تأثیرات ارتفاع از سطح دریا و مهم‌ترین مؤلفه‌های خاک بر خصوصیات پوشش گیاهی در حوزۀ آبخیز اسالم انجام گرفت. 160 قطعه نمونۀ دایره‌شکل هر یک با مساحت 1000 متر مربع با استفاده از روش سیستماتیک- تصادفی در طول شیب تغییرات ارتفاعی پیاده شدند. نتایج بررسی ترکیب پوشش گیاهی در لایه‌های مختلف رویشی در طول شیب تغییرات ارتفاعی (100 تا 1700 متر) نوسان‌هایی را نشان داد. بررسی خصوصیات فیزیکی خاک در طول شیب محیطی ارتفاعی الگوی تغییرات مشخصی را نشان نداد. در بین خصوصیات شیمیایی، تغییرات مقدار کربن آلی با افزایش ارتفاع معنی‌دار بود. نتایج آنالیز تطبیقی متعارف نشان داد که در لایۀ درختی بین سطح مقطع برابرسینۀ گونه‌های بارانک، بلندمازو، انجیلی و خرمندی با درجۀ واکنش خاک رابطۀ مثبت وجود دارد. بین تعداد گونه‌های درختچه‌ای و عوامل محیطی رابطۀ معنی‌دار به‌دست آمد و گونه­های ال اسبی و سیاه‌گیله با ارتفاع از سطح دریا، درصد فسفر و درصد سیلت خاک رابطۀ مستقیم و معنی‌دار نشان دادند. در نهایت، در لایۀ علفی درصد پوشش گونه‌های Festuca drymeja Mert. & W.D.J.Koch، Lathyrus laxiflorus (Desf.) Kuntze، Potentilla micrantha Ramond ، Veronica persica Poir. و Viola alba Besser با ارتفاع از سطح دریا و درصد کربن آلی خاک رابطۀ مستقیم نشان دادند. ارتفاع از سطح دریا عاملی اصلی در الگوی توزیع ترکیب پوشش گیاهی است. در طول شیب محیطی تغییر شرایط محیطی سبب ایجاد تغییرات پوشش گیاهی شد که بر کیفیت و کمیت مادۀ آلی خاک اثرگذار بوده و با تغییرات خصوصیات خاک، شرایط برای استقرار گونۀ گیاهی مشخص فراهم شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of altitude and the most important soil components on vegetation characteristics, Asalem watershed)

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Pourbabaei 1
  • A. Salehi 2
  • S. Sadat Ebrahimi 3
  • F. Khodaparast 3
1 Prof., Dept. of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Guilan University, Rasht, I. R. Iran
2 Prof., Dept. of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Guilan University, Rasht, I. R. Iran
3 Ph.D. Graduated of Forest science, Dept. of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Guilan University, Rasht, I. R. Iran
چکیده [English]

This study aims at assessing the effect of altitude and the most important soil components on vegetation characteristics in the Asalem Watershed basin. For this purpose, 160 0.1 ha circular plots, were established along altitude gradient. Vegetation layers and soil physio-chemical characteristics were measured within sampling plot. The results of vegetation composition in different vegetation layers showed a fluctuation along the altitude gradients. Soil physical characteristics did not indicate specific variation pattern. Whereas, soil organic carbon was increased significantly along altitude (P≤ 0.01). The results of Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated a positive correlation between soil Ph and diameter at breast height (DBH) of Diospyros lotus, Parrotia persica, Quercus castaneifolia and Sorbus torminalis species. In shrub layer, there was a significant correlation between density of species and environmental factors. The density of Evonymus latifolia and Vaccinium arctostaphylos had a significant relationship with altitude, the percentage of phosphorus and silt, directly. In the herbaceous layer, significant relationship belonged to percentage over of Festuca drymeia, Lathyrus laxiflorus, Potentilla micrantha, Veronica persica and Viola odorata with altitude and percentage of organic carbon. According to the results, it can be noted that the altitude is the main factor in the distribution pattern of vegetation composition in the study area. Changes in environmental conditions along the gradient, are effective on the quality and quantity of soil organic matter through vegetation changes which provide favorable conditions for the establishment of a specific plant species 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Forest Ecosystem
  • Environmental Factors
  • Physical and chemical soil properties
  • West of Guilan
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