برآورد مشخصه‌های اکوهیدرولوژیک تاج‌پوشش توده‌های راش شرقی و بلندمازو در ناحیۀ رویشی هیرکانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد علوم زیستی جنگل، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج

2 استاد گروه جنگلداری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج

3 دانشیار گروه علوم و صنایع چوب و کاغذ، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج

4 دکتری جنگل‌شناسی و اکولوژی جنگل، گروه مهندسی جنگل، برنامه‌ریزی مدیریت جنگل و اندازه‌گیری‌های زمینی، دانشکده جنگلشناسی و مهندسی جنگل، دانشگاه ترانسیلوانیای براشوو، براشوو، رومانی

چکیده

محاسبة مقدار مشخصه‌های اکوهیدرولوژیک تاج‌پوشش درختان، گام اصلی در مدل‌سازی توزیع اجزای باران در هنگام برخورد با تاج‌پوشش است. با این کار می‌توان مقادیر تاج‌بارش، ساقاب و باران‌ربایی را در هر رخداد باران پیش‌بینی کرد. هدف این پژوهش، بررسی اکوهیدرولوژی تاج‌پوشش درختان سه تودۀ راش شرقی (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) و سه تودۀ بلندمازو (Quercus castaneifolia C. A. Mey.) در ناحیۀ رویشی هیرکانی در مقیاس زمانی سالانه بود. مشخصه‌های بررسی‌شده شامل نقطۀ اشباع آب تاج‌پوشش، ظرفیت نگهداری آب تاج‌پوشش، ضریب تاج‌بارش مستقیم و نسبت تبخیر به شدت باران در زمان بارندگی بود. میانگین نقطۀ اشباع آب تاج‌پوشش در بلندمازو 37/5 میلی‌متر و در راش شرقی 29/6 میلی‌متر بود. همچنین به‌طور متوسط، ظرفیت نگهداری آب تاج‌پوشش راش شرقی با مقدار 08/2 میلی‌متر بیشتر از بلندمازو (15/1 میلی‌متر) بود. متوسط مقدار باران در توده‌های بلندمازو و راش شرقی به‌ترتیب 0/20 و 2/16 میلی‌متر اندازه‌گیری شد. میانگین باران‌ربایی نسبی در راش شرقی (9/36 درصد) اندکی بیشتر از بلندمازو (5/33 درصد) حاصل شد. میانگین ضریب تاج‌بارش مستقیم و نسبت تبخیر در زمان بارندگی به شدت باران در راش شرقی 50/0 و 25/0 و در بلندمازو 71/0 و 36/0 محاسبه شد. با دانستن مقادیر مشخصه‌های اکوهیدرولوژیک تاج‌پوشش می‌توان در توده‌های با مقدار زیاد ظرفیت نگهداری آب تاج‌پوشش و مقدار کم ضریب تاج‌بارش، تیمارهای جنگل‌شناسی تنک کردن و هرس کردن را اعمال کرد و از این طریق مقدار باران‌ربایی را کاهش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimation of canopy ecohydrological parameters of oriental beech and chestnut-leaved oak stands in Hyrcanian vegetation region

نویسندگان [English]

  • T. Panahandeh 1
  • P. Attarod 2
  • M. Namiranian 2
  • V. Bayramzadeh 3
  • S.M.M. Sadeghi 4
1 M.Sc. Graduated of Forest Biology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran
2 Prof., Dept. of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Prof., Dept. of Wood Sciences, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
4 Technical Bureau of Forestry and Plantation, Natural Resources and Watershed Management Office, West Azerbaijan Province, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Calculating the amount of canopy ecohydrological parameters is the main step in rainfall partitioning modeling, and by calculating the amount of ecohydrological parameters, it is possible to predict the amount of throughfall, stemflow, and rainfall interception per rain storm. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the canopy echohydrological parameters of three oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stands and three chestnut-leaved oak (Quercus castaneifolia C. A. Mey.) located in the Hyrcanian vegetation region in the annual-based time scale. The ecohydrological parameters studied included canopy saturation point, canopy water storage capacity, free throughfall coefficient, and the ratio of mean evaporation rate from canopy to the mean rainfall intensity. On average, the canopy saturation point was 5.37 mm in the chestnut-leaved oak and 6.29 mm in the oriental beech. Also, on average, the canopy water storage capacity of the oriental beech (2.08 mm) was higher than that of the chestnut-leaved oak (1.15 mm). The mean rainfall magnitudes in the chestnut-leaved oak and oriental beech stands were 20.0 and 16.2 mm, respectively. The average relative interception in the oriental beech (36.9%) was slightly higher than the chestnut-leaved oak (33.5%). The average free throughfall coefficient and the ratio of mean evaporation rate from canopy to the mean rainfall intensity were calculated to be 0.50 and 0.25 for the oriental beech and 0.71 and 0.36 for the chestnut-leaved oak. By knowing the values of canopy ecohydrological parameters, thinning and pruning silvicultural treatments can be applied in stands with high water storage capacity and low free throughfall coefficient to reduce rainfall interception.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Canopy saturation point
  • Canopy water storage capacity
  • free throughfall coefficient
  • Forest ecohydrology
 
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دوره 14، شماره 1
خرداد 1401
صفحه 27-36
  • تاریخ دریافت: 20 اردیبهشت 1400
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 15 مرداد 1400
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 03 شهریور 1400
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 13 بهمن 1400