تاثیر گرادیان دما و بارش بر رویش عرضی و ویژگی‌های آوندی چوب زبان‌گنجشک (Fraxinus excelsior L.) در جنگل‌های هیرکانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه علوم و صنایع چوب و کاغذ، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج

2 استاد گروه علوم و صنایع چوب و کاغذ، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج

3 دانش‌آموختۀ کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم و صنایع چوب و کاغذ، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج

10.22034/ijf.2022.310532.1806

چکیده

ویژگی‌های آوندی، کارامدی سامانۀ هیدرولیک درختان پهن‌برگ را تعیین می‌کنند. در این پژوهش برای بررسی تأثیر ارتفاع از سطح دریا و طول جغرافیایی (گرادیان دمایی و رطوبتی) بر رویش عرضی و ویژگی‌های آوندی بافت چوبی زبان‌گنجشک (Fraxinus excelsior)، از درختان واقع در دو رویشگاه 300 و 1300 متری در جنگل‌های دالخانی رامسر و یک رویشگاه ساری (ارتفاع 1260 متری) نمونه‌برداری شد. پهنای حلقۀ ‌رویش (TRW) و چوب‌آغاز و چوب‌پایان، میانگین اندازه (AVLA) و تعداد آوندهای چوب‌آغاز (VF)، تخلخل، هدایت هیدرولیکی ویژۀ نسبی (RSC) و طول الیاف در ده حلقۀ رویشی آخر در این درختان اندازه‌گیری و مقایسه شدند. براساس نتایج، تغییرات اندازۀ آوندها مستقل از دیگر ویژگی‌ها و متأثر از مؤلفۀ متفاوتی بود. در مقایسۀ رویشگاه مرتفع و پستِ رامسر، TRW در ارتفاع پایین بیشتر ولی RSC، VF و تخلخل در این رویشگاه کمتر بود. برخلاف انتظار، با کاهش ارتفاع (افزایش دما)، اندازۀ آوندها کوچک‌تر شد که این مسئله را می‌توان به اثر معکوس دمای بیشتر از حد آستانه بر فیزیولوژی درخت نسبت داد. علی‌رغم اختلاف در AVLA و VF در دو رویشگاهِ مرتفع رامسر و ساری، نحوۀ ترکیبِ این دو در درختان این دو رویشگاه به‌گونه‌ای بود که تخلخل، RSC و TRW رویشگاه‌ها شبیه یکدیگر شد. به‌طور کلی می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که در منطقۀ غربی و مرکزی هیرکانی، اثر ارتفاع از سطح دریا - که به‌شکل کاهش دما خود را نشان می‌دهد- بر رشد عرضی و سامانۀ آوندی درختان زبان‌گنجشک بیش از گرادیان رطوبتی (طول جغرافیایی) است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of temperature and precipitation gradient on radial growth and vascular characteristics of Fraxinus excelsior L. in Hyrcanian forests

نویسندگان [English]

  • R. Oladi 1
  • K. Pourtahmasi 2
  • Z. Lamtarali 3
1 Associate Prof., Dept. of Wood Science and Technology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Prof., Dept. of Wood Science and Technology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 MSc Graduate of Wood Biology and Anatomy, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

 
Vascular characteristics of the xylem determine the efficiency of the hydraulic system in broadleaved trees. To investigate the effects of elevation and longitude (temperature and precipitation gradient) on radial growth and vascular properties of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) xylem, samples were taken from trees located in two wet sites in Ramsar (300 and 1300 m.a.s.l) and a semi-dry site in Sari (1260 m.a.s.l) of Hyrcanian forests. Tree-ring width (TRW), as well as early- and latewood width, average size (AVLA) and the number of vessels per area (VF), tree-ring porosity, relative specific hydraulic conductivity (RSC), and fiber length were measured and compared in the last ten growth rings of selected trees. According to the results, variations in vessel size were independent of other features and were affected by a different component. Compared with the highland of Ramsar, trees at low altitudes had wider annual rings while having lower RSC, VF, and porosity. Surprisingly, with a decrease in altitude (increasing temperature), the size of vessels shrank, which can be attributed to the inverse effect of over-threshold temperature on tree physiology. Despite the differences in AVLA and VF in the two highland sites of Ramsar and Sari, the combination of two features was in a way that the porosity, RSC, and TRW of trees in the two sites became comparable. In general, it can be concluded that in the western and central Hyrcanian forests, the effect of altitude – manifested in a decrease in temperature - on the radial growth and vascular system of ash trees is more pronounced than the effect of precipitation gradient (longitude).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Elevational gradient
  • wood anatomy
  • tree physiology
  • xylem conducting tissue
  • ash
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