عنوان مقاله [English]
Harvesting system in any form can cause damages to residual stands, but this is clear that decreasing damages to residual stands helps to increase sustainability in forestry. This study was carried out in compartment 3 of district 2 in Galandroud forests in southern Royan which is managed by Shelter-wood method. Logging method in the study area was traditional logging system. Results showed that in damaged trees with respect to the depth of scar, 10.5% of scars have discoloured, 29.8% were skin-damaged but without skin removal, and 59.7% with skin and cambium removal. 6/2% of injuries were more than 500cm2 , 17.5% between 100-500cm2, and 28.9% between 25-100cm2, and 47.4% were less than 25cm2. According to the results, 60.5%, 32.6% and 6.9% of injuries were created by skidding activity, felling activity and human activity, respectively. Also results showed that approximately 82% of damages occurred in the first 2m of the tree bole.