The relationship between Iranian oak decline (Quercus brantii Lindl.) and some properties of soil and determining the ecophysiological responses of this

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student of Forest Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, I.R. Iran

2 Assistant Prof., Dept. of Forestry, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Reasources, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, I.R. Iran

3 Profr., Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Reasources, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, I.R. Iran


To study the relationship between some physico-chemical properties of soil and ecophysiological properties of oak trees on dieback, Meleshabanan area in Lorestan Province was selected. Using the geographic information system (GIS), the landform map of study area was prepared. In this forest, 30 square sample plots with 2500 m2 area, in a random systematic grid (200*200) were selected. The percent dieback was measured and recorded. In each sample plot, soil and leaves of oak trees were sampled. Some soil properties such as texture, electrical conductivity, acidity, bulk density, porosity, organic carbon, organic matter, and concentrations of calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium were measured. Also peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase enzymes, MDA, proline, chlorophyll a, b, carotenoid pigment, and concentrations of calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium in leaves were measured. The results showed that there was a significant difference in clay, sand, soil texture, Ca content, N/P ratio, and, MDA concentration between different dieback classes. Leaf Ca concentration with increasing dieback increased, while MDA first increased and then decreased. Also, the results of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that the frequency of trees in high dieback classes and the number of dead trees were directly related to bulk density and %clay and inversely related to %porosity, %sand, Mg, K, and N content.


Adekalu, K.O., Okunade, D.A., & Osunbitan, J.A. (2006). Compaction and mulching effects on soil loss and runoff from two southwestern Nigeria agricultural soils. Journal of Geoderma, 137(1-2), 226–230.
Akinci, I.E., & Simsek, M. (2004). Ameliorative effects of potassium and calcium on the salinity stress in embryo culture of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Journal of Biolgical Science, 4(3), 361-365.
Alban, H.D., Host, G.E., Elioff, J.D., & Shadis, D.A. (1994). Soil and vegetation response to soil compaction and forest floor removal after aspen harvesting. Minnesota: United States department of agriculture, 8p.
Allison, L.E. (1975). Organic carbon. In C. A. Black, D. D. Evans, J. L. White, L. E. Ensminger & F. E. Clark (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis. (pp. 1367-1379). Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy.
Attwill, P.M., & Adams, M.A. (1996). Nutrition of Eucalypts. Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 440p.
Ballard, T.M. (2000). Impacts of forest management on northern forest soils. Journal of Forest Ecology and Management, 133(1-2), 37-42.
Banziger, M., Edmeades, G.O., Beck, D., & Bellon, M. (2000). Breeding for Drought and Nitrogen Stress Tolerance in Maize. Mexico: CIMMYT, 68p.
Bates, L.S., Waldren, R.P., & Teare, I. D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Journal of Plant Soil, 39(1), 205-207.
Benton, J., & Case, V.W. (1990). Sampling, handling and analyzing plant tissue samples. In R.L. Westerman (Ed), Soil testing and plant analysis (pp. 389-428). Madison, Wisconsin: Soil Science Society of America.
Blake, G.R., & Hartge, K.H. (1986). Bulk density. In A. Klute (Ed), Methods of Soil Analysis (pp. 363-375). Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy.
Blokhin, O., Virolainen, E., & Fagerstedt, K. (2003). Antioxidant oxidative damage and oxygen deprivation stress. Journal of Annals of Botany, 91(2), 179-194.
Buge, J.A., & Aust, S.D. (1978). Microsomal lipid proxidation. Journal of Methods in Enzymology, 52, 302-310.
Catton, H.A., George, St.S., & Remphrey, W.R. (2007). An evaluation of Bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) decline in the urban forest of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Journal of Arboriculture & Urban Forestry, 33(1), 22–30.
Chance, B., & Maehly, A.C. (1995). Assay of catalas and proxidase. In S. P. Colowick & N. D. Kaplan (Eds), New York: Academic press. Journal of Methods in Enzymology, 2, 764-775.
Danielson, R.E., & Sutherland, P.L. (1986). Porosity. In A. Klute (Ed), Methods of Soil Analysis (pp. 377-381). Madison, Wisconsin: Soil Science Society of America.
Das, A.J., Battles, J., Stephenson, N.L., & Van-Mantgemd, P.J. (2011). The contribution of competition to tree mortality in old-growth coniferous forests. Journal of Forest Ecology and Management, 261(7), 1203-1213.
Demchik, M.C., & Sharpe, W.E. (2000). The effect of soil nutrition, soil acidity and drought on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) growth and nutrition on Pennsylvania sites with high and low red oak mortality. Journal of Forest Ecology & Management, 136(1), 199-207.
Diallo, A.T., Samb, P.I., & Roy-Macauley, H. (2001). Whater status and stomatal behavior of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L). Walp, plants inoculated with two Glomus species at low soil moisture levels. European Journal of Soil Biology, 37(3), 187-196.
Drobyshev, L., Linderson, H., & Sonesson, K. (2007). Relationship between Crown Condition and Tree Diameter Growth in Southern Swedish Oaks. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. Asess, 128(1-3), 61-73.
EC & UN/ECE. (2000). Forest Condition in Europe: Results of the 2000 large-scale survey. Geneva, Brussels: UN/ECE and EC, 103p.
Egilla, J.N., Davies, F.T., & Boutton, T.W. (2005). Drought stress influences leaf water content, photosynthetic and whter-use efficiency of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis at three potassium concentration. Journal of Photosynthetica, 43(1), 135-140.
Fensham, R.J., Fairfax, R.J., & Kenkel, N. (2007). Drought related tree death of savanna eucalyptus: species susceptibility, soil conditiona and root architecture. Journal of Vegetation Science, 18(1), 71-80.
Flowers, M.D., & Lal, R. (1998). Axle load and tillage effects on soil physical properties and soybean grain yield on a mollic ochraqualf in northwest Ohio. Journal of Soil and Tillage Research, 48, 21–35.
Gee, G.W., & Bauder, J.W. (1986). Particle-size analysis. In A. Klute (Ed). Methods of Soil Analysis (pp. 383-412). Madison, Wisconsin: Agronomy Society of America.
Gillner, S., Vogt, J., & Roloff, A. (2013). Climatic response and impacts of drought on oaks at urban and forest sites. Journal of Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 12(4), 597–605.
Heilman, P. (1981). Root penetration of Douglas-fir seedlings into compacted soil. Journal of Forest Science, 27(4), 660-666.
Hepler, P.K., & Wayne, R.O. (1985). Calcium and plant development. Annual Review. Journal of plant physiology, 36, 397-439.
Hosseini, A. (2017). Variability of nitrogen and phosphorous in Persian oak trees and soil of dieback affected stands in Ilam. Journal of Forest and Wood Products, 70(2), 231-240.
Hosseini, A., Matinizadeh, M., & Shariat, A. (2017). Effect of crown dieback intensity on some physiological characteristics of Persian oak trees (Quercus brantii var. persica). Iranian Journal of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research, 25(1), 57-71.
Jazireii, M. H., & Ebrahimi Rostaghi, M. (2003). Silviculture in Zagros. Tehran: University of Tehran Press, 560p. (In Persian)
Kabrick, J.M., Dey, D.C., Jensen, R.G., & Wallendorf, M. (2008). The role of environmental factors in oak decline and mortality in the Ozark Highlands. Journal of Forest Ecology and Management, 255(5-6), 1409-1417.
Klobucar, D., & Pernar, R. (2012). Geostatistical approach to spatial analysis of forest damage. Journal of Periodicum Biologrum, 114(1), 103-110.
Knudesh, D., Peterson, G.A., & Pratt, P.F. (1982). Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium. In A.L, Page (Ed), Methods of soil AnalysiS. Madison, Wisconsin: Agronomy Society of America.
Lanyon, L.E., & Heald, W.R. (1982). Magnesium, Calsium, Strontium, and Barium. In A.L, Page (Ed), Methods of soil Analysis. Madison, Wisconsin: Soil Science Agronomy Society of America.
Larsen, J. B. (1995). Ecological stability of forests and sustainable silviculture. Journal of forest ecology and management, 75(1), 85-96.
Li, M., Wang, G., & Lin, J. (2003). Application of external calcium in improving the PEG induced water stress tolerance in liquorice cells. Journal of Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 44(4), 275-284.
Lichtenthaler, H.K. (1987). Chlorophylls and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic biomembrane.  Journal of Methods of Enzymology, 148, 350-382.
Liu, C., Liu, Y., Guo, K., Fan, D., Li, G., Zhenga, Y., Yuc, L., & Yangc, R. (2011). Effect of drought on pigments, osmotic adjustment and antioxidant enzymes in six woody plant species in karst habitats some maquis (Ceratonia siliqua L., Olea oleaster Hoffm. & Link, Pistacia lentiscus and Quercus coccifera L.) plant species to drought in the east Mediterranean ecosystem. Journal of Environmental and Experimental Botany, 71, 174-183.
Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., & Randall, R.J. (1951). Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biolgical Chemistry, 193(1), 265-273.
MacAdam, J.W., Nelson, C.J., & Sharp, R.E. (1992). Peroxidase Activity in the leaf elongation zone of tall fescue I. Spatial distribution of ionically bound peroxidase activity in genotypes differing in length of the elongation zone. Journal of Plant physiology, 99(3), 872-878.
Mahdavi, A., Mirzaeizadeh, V., Niknejad, M., & Karami, O. (2015). Assessment and prediction of drying oak trees using a logistic regression model (case study: Bivareh Forest Malekshahi-Ilam). Iranian Journal of Forest and Range Protection Research, 13(1), 20-33.
Manion, P.D. (1981). Tree disease concepts. New Jersey: Prentice- Hall, 399p.
Maranon, T., Ajbilou, R., Ojeda, F., & Arroya, J. (1999). Biodiversity of woody species in oak woodland of southern Spain and northern Morocco. Journal of Forest Ecology and Management, 115(2-3), 147-156.
Marvie Mohadjer, M.R. (2014). Silviculture. Tehran: University of Tehran Press, 418p.
McDowell, N.G., Pockman, W.T., & Allen, C.D. (2008). Tansley Review: mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: Why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought? Journal of New Physiologist, 178(4), 719-739.
McKersie, B.D., & Leshem, Y.Y. (1994). Stress and stress coping in cultivated plants. Dordrecht-Boston, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 256p.
Mosca, E., Montecchio, L., Sella, L., & Garbaye, J. (2007). Short-term effect of removing tree competition on the ectomycorrhizal status of a declining pedunculate oak forest (Quercus robur L.). Journal of Forest Ecology and Management, 244(1-3), 129–140.
Nakano, Y., & Asada, K. (1981). Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloropla sts. Journal of Plant Cell Physiology, 22(5), 867-880.
Olsen, S.R., & Sommers, L.E. (1982). Phosphorus. In A.L. Page (Ed), Methods of Soil Analysis (pp. 403-430). Madison, Wisconsin: Agronomy Society of America.
Ozturk, M., Dogan, Y., Sakcali, M.S., Doulis, A., & Karam, F. (2010). Ecophysiological responses of some maquis (Ceratonia siliqua L., Olea oleaster Hoffm. & Link, Pistacia lentiscus L. and Quercus coccifera L.) plant species to drought in the east Mediterranean ecosystem. Journal of Environmental Biology, 31(1-2), 233-245.
Parvaneh, E., Etemad, V., Marvie Mohadjer, M.R., Zahedi Amiri, Gh., & Attarod, P. (2016). The relationships between the rate of oak trees decline and forest types, soil characteristics and topographic conditions in Ghalaje Forests of Kermanshah, west of Iran.  Iranian Journal of Forest, 8(3), 263-275.
Poulos, H.M., Goodale, U.M., & Berlyn, G.P. (2007). Drought response of two Mexican oak species, Quercus laceyi and Q. sideroxyla (Fagaceae), in relation to elevational position. American Journal of Botany, 94(5), 809–818.
Pourhashmi, M., Jahangazi Gojani, H., Hosseinzadeh, J., Bradbar, S. k., Iranmanesh, Y., & Khodakarami, Y. (2016). The history of oak decline in Zagros forests. Journal of Iran Nature, 2(1), 30-37.
Rhoades, J.D. (1996). Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. In A.L. Page, R.H Miller & D.R. Keeney (Eds), Methods of Soil Analysis (pp. 417–435). Madison, Wisconsin: Agronomy Society of America.
Rozans, V., & Sampedro, L. (2013). Soil chemical properties and dieback of Quercus robur in Atlantic wet forests after a weather extreme. Journal of Plant and soil, 373(1-2), 673-685.
Samarah, N., Mullen, R., & Cianzio, S. (2004). Size distribution and mineral nutrients of soybean seeds in response to drought stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 27(5), 815-835.
Sardabi, H., Rahmati, A., Hamze, B., Assareh, M.H., & Ghorani, M. (2011). Comparison of some macro-nutrient elements in foliar of six eucalypt species at a 24 year-old plantation. Iranian Journal of Forest, 3 (1), 61-70.
Sardans, J., Penuelas, J., & Ogaya, R. (2008). Drought-induced changes in C and N stoichimetry in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest. Journal of Forest Science, 54(5), 513-522.
Schönbeck, L., Gessler, A., Schaub, M., Riglinga, A., Hoch, G., Kahmen, A., & Mai-He, L. (2020). Soil nutrients and lowered source:sink ratio mitigate effects of mild but not of extreme drought in trees. Journal of Environmental and Experimental Botany, 169, 103905.
Siwecki, R., & Liese, W. (1991). Oak Decline in Europe. Proceedings of an International Symposium, IUFRO and Polish Academy of Sciences (pp. 15-18). Kornik, Poland: Institute of Dendrology, 360p.
Sofo, A., Dichio, B., Xiloyannis, C., & Masia, A. (2004). Effects of different irradiance levels on some antioxidant enzymes and on malondialdehyde content during rewatering in olive tree. Journal of Plant Science, 166(2), 293–302.
Sohar, K., Helama, S., Laanelaid, A., Raisio, J., & Tuomenvirta, H. (2014). Oak decline in a southern Finnish forest as affected by a drought sequence. Journal of Geochronometria, 41(1), 92–103.
Starkey, D.A., Oliveria, F., Mangini, A., & Mielke, M. (2004). Oak decline and red oak borer in the interior highlands of Arkansas and Missouri: natural phenomena, severe occurrences. In M. A. Spetich (Ed), Proceeding of the upland oak ecology symposium: History, Current Conditions, and Sustainability (pp. 217-222). Southern Research Station: Department of agriculture, Forest Service.
Tessier, J.T., & Raynal, D.J. (2003). Use of nitrogen to phosphorus ratios in plant tissue as an indicator of nutrient limitation and nitrogen saturation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 40(3), 523-534.
Toledo, J.J.D., Magnusson, W.E., Castilho, C.V., & Nascimento, H.E.M. (2011). How much variation in tree mortality is predicted by soil and topography in Central Amazonia?. Journal of Forest ecology and Management, 262(3), 331-338.
Thomas, G.W. (1996). Soil pH and soil acidity, In A. L. Page et al. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis (pp. 475-490). Madison, Wisconsin: Agronomy Society of America.
Tulik, M., & Bijak, S. (2016). Are climatic factors responsible for the process of oak decline in Poland?.  Journal of Dendrochronologia, 38, 18–25.
Utrillas, M.J., Alegre, L., & Simon, E. (1995). Seasonal-changes in productions and nutrient content of Cynodon dactylon L. per subjected to water deficits. Journal of Plant and Soil, 175(1), 153-157.
Westeman, R.E.L. (1990). Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. Madison, Wisconsin: Agronomy Society of America.
Zarafshar, M., Negahdarsaber, M., Jahanbazi Gojani, H., Pourhashemi, M., Bordbar, S.K., Matinizedeh, M., & Abbasi, A. (2020). Dieback in pure stands of Brant`s oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) in southern Zagros forests, Kohmareh Sorkhi region of Fars province. Iranian Journal of Forest, 12(2), 291-303.
Zobeiri, M. (2009). Forest inventory (measuring trees and forests). Tehran: University of Tehran, 401 p.