اثر آتش‌سوزی جنگل بر پویایی برخی از مشخصه‌های فیزیکی، شیمیایی و بیولوژی خاک با گذشت زمان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی جنگل، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 استاد گروه جنگلداری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

3 استاد گروه احیاء مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

4 دانشیار گروه جنگداری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

5 ستادیار گروه جنگلداری، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی نور، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، ایران.

10.22034/ijf.2021.136935

چکیده

برای بررسی اثر آتش‌سوزی بر پویایی برخی از مشخصه‌های فیزیکی، شیمیایی و بیولوژی خاک، 36 پلات با سه شدت آتش‌سوزی کم، متوسط و زیاد و نیز تیمار شاهد بدون سوختگی در بخش نمخانۀ جنگل آموزشی دانشگاه تهران پیاده شد. سپس نمونه‌های خاک از لایۀ 10-0 سانتی‌متری در سه مرحله (یک روز بعد، 6 و 12 ماه پس از گذشت آتش‌سوزی) برداشت و خصوصیات خاک بررسی شد. به‌منظور تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها از آزمون آنالیز واریانس با اندازه‌های مکرر در نرم‌افزار SPSS استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که شدت آتش‌سوزی بر مشخصه‌های فیزیکی خاک شامل جرم مخصوص ظاهری، محتوای رطوبت و بافت خاک اثر معنی‌داری نداشته است. نتایج بررسی مشخصه‌های شیمیایی خاک نشان داد که شدت آتش‌سوزی بر هدایت الکتریکی، کربن آلی، نیتروژن کل، نسبت کربن به نیتروژن، فسفر، کلسیم، پتاسیم و منیزیم اثر معنی‌داری داشته، ولی بر pH اثر معنی‌داری نداشته است. در مورد مشخصه‌های بیولوژی، شدت آتش‌سوزی بر زی‌تودۀ میکروبی کربن اثر معنی‌دار داشته، اما بر تنفس میکروبی و زی‌تودۀ میکروبی نیتروژن اثر معنی‌داری نداشته است. گذشت زمان پس از آتش‌سوزی بر محتوای رطوبت، تنفس میکروبی، زی‌تودۀ میکروبی کربن و نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم قابل جذب اثر معنی‌داری داشته، ولی بر دیگر مشخصه‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی بررسی‌شده اثر معنی‌داری نداشته است. ازآنجا که آتش‌سوزی سبب کاهش طولانی‌مدت مواد مغذی خاک می‌شود، برخی اقدامات پیشگیرانه و ترمیمی پس از آتش‌سوزی در نقاطی با شدت آتش‌سوزی متوسط و زیاد، برای برگشت سریع‌تر عملکرد خاک ضروری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of forest fires on the dynamics of some soil physical, chemical and biological characteristics over time

نویسندگان [English]

  • H Samdaliri 1
  • M Jourgholami 2
  • A Salajegheh 3
  • E Abdi 4
  • Y kooch 5
1 Ph.D. Student of Forest Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, I. R. Iran
2 Prof., Dept. of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, I. R. Iran.
3 Prof., Dept. of Arid and Mountainous Regions Reclamation, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, I. R. Iran.
4 4Associate Prof., Dept. of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, I. R. Iran
5 5Assistant Prof., Dept. of forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, I. R. Iran.
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of fire on some physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil, 36 sample plots with three low, medium and high fire intensities and control treatments were set up in the Namkhaneh district of University of Tehran Forest. Soil samples were then taken from 0-10 cm layer in three phases (one day, 6 and 12 months after the fire) and some soil properties were studied. Data analysis was done by repeated measures ANOVA in SPSS software. The results showed that fire intensity had no significant effect on soil physical properties including bulk density, moisture content and soil texture. The results of soil chemical properties analysis showed that fire intensity had a significant effect on electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbon to nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, potassium and magnesium ratios but had no significant effect on pH. In terms of biological characteristics, fire intensity had no significant effect on carbon microbial biomass but on microbial respiration and nitrogen microbial biomass. Time after fire had significant effect on moisture content, microbial respiration, microbial carbon and nitrogen, available phosphorus and potassium but had no significant effect on other physical, chemical properties. Since fire causes long-term depletion of soil nutrients, some post-fire preventive and rehabilitative measures in areas with moderate and high fire severities are required to restore soil functions more quickly.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : Fire
  • Fire severity
  • Soil properties
  • Controlled fire
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