بهبود صفات رویشی- فیزیولوژیک پروونانس‌های فندق مایه‌زنی‌شده با باکتری‌های محرک رشد، در شرایط عرصه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اردبیل، ایران

2 دانشیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات جنگل، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات جنگل، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

کندی رشد نهال‌های فندق به‌ویژه در سال‌های نخست جنگلکاری، اجرای برنامه‌های احیا و توسعۀ جنگل فندقلو را با تأخیر مواجه می‌کند. در این زمینه، کاربرد کودهای زیستی به‌ویژه باکتری‌های افزایندۀ رشد گیاه می‌تواند راهبرد مؤثری در بهبود صفات رویشی و فیزیولوژیک نهال فندق محسوب شود. بدین منظور در اوایل اردیبهشت 1396 در نهالستان فندقلوی اردبیل، خاک اطراف ریشۀ نونهال‌های گلدانی فندق، تولیدشده از دو مبدأ فندقلو (جنگل فندقلوی اردبیل) و مکش (جنگل آق‌اولر گیلان)، با باکتری‌های DSM291 Pseudomonas putida،FzB24  Bacillus subtilis و E1 Enterobacter cloacae به‌صورت مجزا و ترکیبی مایه‌زنی شدند. سپس در آبان 1397، نهال‌های یکسالۀ فندق به اراضی زراعی حاشیۀ جنگل فندقلو منتقل شده و با توجه به دو فاکتور یادشده (مایه‌زنی، مبدأ بذر) در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار دوازده‌تایی در شرایط دیم کشت شدند. نتایج پس از چهار سال نشان داد که نهال‌های تلقیح‌شدۀ هر دو مبدأ، از لحاظ همۀ صفات بررسی‌شده اندازۀ بزرگ‌تری از نهال‌های تلقیح‌نشده داشتند. بزرگ‌ترین اندازۀ متغیرهای بررسی‌شده به نهال‌های مبدأ فندقلو با مایه‌زنی ترکیبی سه باکتری اختصاص داشت، به‌طوری که در این نهال‌ها زنده‌مانی 7/49، رویش قطر یقه 1/51، رویش ارتفاع 4/60، زی‌تودۀ خشک ریشه، ساقه و برگ به‌ترتیب 6/85، 1/75 و 2/68، فتوسنتز 9/49، هدایت روزنه‌ای 04/58، کارایی مصرف آب 7/121 و محتوای کلروفیل 8/46 درصد نسبت به نهال‌های مایه‌زنی‌نشدۀ مبدأ فندقلو افزایش داشت. در کل نظر به اثر باکتری‌های محرک رشد تحت بررسی (به‌ویژه تیمار ترکیبی) در بهبود صفات رشد و فیزیولوژی پروونانس‌های فندق، تلقیح با باکتری نهال‌های فندق در نهالستان اقدامی مفید برای توفیق نهالکاری‌های آن در عرصه خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Improvement of growth -physiological traits of hazelnuts provenances inoculated with growth promoting bacteria under field conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Y Rostamikia 1
  • A Rahmani 2
  • M Teimouri 3
1 Assist., Prof., Forests and Rangelands Research Dept. Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ardabil, I.R. Iran.
2 Associate Prof., Forest Research Dept. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, I. R. Iran.
3 Assist Prof., Forest Research Dept. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, I. R. Iran.
چکیده [English]

The slow growth of hazelnut seedlings, particularly during the initial years of afforestation, hampers the rehabilitation and development programs of hazelnut forests. In this context, biological fertilizers, especially plant growth-promoting bacteria, can be an effective strategy to enhance the growth and physiological traits of hazelnut seedlings. In May 2017, new hazelnut potted seedlings from two seed sources - Fandoglou (Ardabil Fandoglou forest) and Makesh (Aghvalar Guilan forest) - were propagated in an Ardabil hazelnut nursery. These seedlings were inoculated separately and in combination with Pseudomonas putida DSM291, Bacillus subtilis FzB24, and Enterobacter cloacae E1. In November 2017, the one-year-old hazelnut seedlings were transferred to agricultural lands bordering the Fandoglou forest. The seedlings were planted in rain-fed conditions following a randomized complete block design with three replications of 12 based on two factors: fertilization and seed origin. After four years, it was observed that inoculated seedlings from both origins outperformed non-inoculated ones in all investigated traits. The largest parameters of the studied variables were attributed to the Fandoglou-origin seedlings inoculated with a combination of three bacteria. These seedlings showed a survival rate of 49.7%, collar diameter growth of 51.1%, height growth of 60.4%, and dry mass increases in roots (85.6%), stems (75.1%), and leaves (68.2%). Additionally, photosynthesis increased by 49.9%, stomatal conductance by 58.04%, water consumption efficiency by 121.7%, and chlorophyll content by 46% compared to non-fertilized Fandoglou-origin seedlings. In conclusion, considering the role of the studied growth-promoting bacteria (especially the combined treatment) in enhancing the growth characteristics and physiology of hazelnut provenances, inoculating hazelnut seedlings with bacteria in nurseries can be a beneficial strategy for successful field transplantation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Collar diameter
  • Hazelnut
  • Growth promoting rhizobacteria
  • Stomatal conductance
  • Survival
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