تنوع و غنای گونه‌ای زنبورهای بالاخانوادۀ Chalcidoidea مرتبط با نسل غیرجنسی زنبورهای گال‌زای بلوط دارمازو Quercus infectoria Oliv. در استان آذربایجان‌ غربی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموختۀ کارشناسی ‌ارشد جنگلداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه

2 استادیار گروه جنگلداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه

3 دانشیار گروه گیاهپزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان ‌شرقی، تبریز

4 استاد گروه جنگلداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه

10.22034/ijf.2022.328053.1846

چکیده

زنبورهای گال‌زای بلوط در خانوادۀ Cynipidae از مهم‌ترین حشرات وابسته به درختان بلوط هستند. به‌منظور جمع‌آوری و شناسایی جوامع پارازیتوییدهای زنبورهای گال‌زا روی بلوط دارمازو Quercus infectoria Oliv. نمونه‌برداری از گال‌ها با توجه به جمع‌آوری نسل غیرجنسی زنبورهای گال‌زای بلوط در مهر 1396 و در دو دامنۀ ارتفاعی (1500-1300 و 1700‌-1500 متر از سطح دریا) در مناطق پردانان و میرآباد انجام گرفت. حشرات خارج‌شده از گال‌ها شناسایی و سپس شاخص‌های تنوع و غنای گونه‌ای آنها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار Ecological Methodology 3/0 محاسبه شد. میانگین تیمارهای اندازه‌گیری‌شده بین دامنه‌های ارتفاعی با آزمون تی استیودنت مستقل در نرم‌افزار SPSS 21 مقایسه شد. براساس نتایج از دو منطقۀ تحت بررسی بیست گونه زنبور گال‌زای بلوط و ده گونه زنبور پارازیتویید متعلق به پنج خانواده از راستۀ بال‌غشاییان شناسایی شد. از بیست گونه زنبور گال‌زای بلوط جمع‌آوری‌شده، فقط پانزده گونه دارای پارازیتویید بودند. دو گونه زنبور گال‌زای Andricus coriarius Hartig وAndricus coriariformis Melika et al.  دارای بیشترین تعداد زنبور پارازیتویید بودند. در بین زنبورهای پارازیتویید شناسایی‌شده نیز بیشترین فراوانی مربوط به گونۀ Aulogymnus gallarum Linnaeus بود که دست‌کم در ده گونه زنبور گال‌زای بلوط اصلی‌ترین پارازیتویید بود و با فراوانی زیاد مشاهده شد. مقادیر میانگین شاخص‌های تنوع و یکنواختی گونه‌ای پارازیتوییدهای زنبورهای گال‌زای بلوط دارمازو در مناطق و همچنین در دامنه‌های ارتفاعی متفاوت، از اختلاف معنی‌داری برخوردار نبودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Species diversity and richness of the superfamily Chalcidoidea associated with the asexual generations of the oak gallwasps species on Quercus infectoria Oliv. in West-Azarbaijan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • A Khodakarimi Moghanjughy 1
  • M.R Zargaran 2
  • H Lotfalizadeh 3
  • J Eshaghi-Rad 4
1 M.Sc., Dept. of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, I. R. Iran
2 Assistant Prof., Dept. of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, I. R. Iran
3 Associate Prof., Dept. of Plant Protection, Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources and Education of East-Azarbaijan, Tabriz, I. R. Iran
4 Prof., Dept. of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, I. R. Iran
چکیده [English]

Oak gallwasps (Family: Cynipidae) are among the most important insects associated with oak trees. To identify the parasitoid communities of gall wasps on Quercus infectoria Oliv., galls were sampled in October 2018 due to the collection of asexual generations of oak gall wasps. Sampling was carried out at two altitudes (1300-1500 and 1500-1700 m) in the Pidaranan and Mirabad areas in 2018. Parasitoid species were identified, and their abundance, species diversity, and richness indices were calculated using Ecological Methodology ver. 3.0 software. The means of the treatments were compared between altitude slopes using an independent student t-test with SPSS ver. 21 software. Results showed that 20 species of gall wasps and 10 species of parasitoid wasps belonging to five families of the order Hymenoptera were collected and identified. Of the 20 species of oak galls, 15 had parasitoids. The two species Andricus coriarius Hartig and Andricus coriariformis Melika et al. had the highest number of parasitoid wasps. Among the parasitoid wasps, the most frequent species was Aulogymnus gallarum L., which was introduced as the main parasitoid in at least 10 gall wasp species with high population density. The mean values of parasitoid species diversity and evenness indices for gall wasp species on Q. infectoria in different regions and altitude slopes were not significantly different from each other.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Demographic Change
  • Gall
  • Natural Enemy
  • Quercus infectoria
  • West-Azarbaijan
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