ابتلای درختان ارس (.Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb) به ارس‌واش (.Arceuthobium oxycedri (D.C.) M. Bieb) در جنگل‌های منطقۀ حفاظت‌شدۀ میانکوه تاش شاهرود

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه جنگلداری، دانشکدۀ کویرشناسی، دانشگاه سمنان، ایران.

2 استادیار، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران.

3 دانش‌آموختۀ کارشناسی ارشد رشتۀ علوم زیستی جنگل، دانشکدۀ کویرشناسی، دانشگاه سمنان، ایران.

4 دانشجوی دکتری علوم زیستی جنگل، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: شیوع گیاه انگلی ارس‌واش یا Arceuthobium oxycedri از مهم‌ترین آسیب‌هایی است که توده‌های ارزشمند ارس در سال‌های اخیر با آن روبه‌رو بوده‌اند. تحقیق پیش رو، با هدف بررسی شدت ابتلای درختان ارس جنگل‌های ارس منطقۀ میانکوه تاش انجام گرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: برای نمونه‌برداری، شبکه‌ای با ابعاد 250×250 متر به‌صورت تصادفی- سیستماتیک با 65 قطعه نمونۀ مربع‌شکل به ابعاد 20×20 متر پیاده شد. در هر قطعه نمونه، مشخصه‌های کمّی هر درخت مانند ارتفاع درخت (m)، قطر کوچک و بزرگ تاج (m)، قطر یقه (cm)، درصد تاج‌پوشش (%) حضور و نبود شاخه‌های خشکیده در درختان میزبان و همچنین برخی فاکتورهای رویشگاهی از جمله ارتفاع از سطح دریا (m)، شیب (%)، جهت جغرافیایی، وضعیت فرسایش خاک در سطح زیر تاج درخت (دسته‌بندی در چهار طبقه) و مقدار بیرون‌زدگی ریشه‌های درخت (دسته‌بندی در سه طبقه) اندازه‌گیری شد. داده‌ها با استفاده از آنالیز تک‌متغیره و آنالیز تشخیص بررسی شد.
 یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که جنسیت پایه، درصد شیب و جهت دامنه اثری بر شدت ابتلا به ارس‌واش نداشتند؛ اما درختان آلوده دارای میانگین ارتفاع (5 متر)، قطر تاج (7/3 متر)، قطر یقه (7/54 سانتی‌متر)، مساحت تاج (8/12 متر مربع) بیشتری در مقایسه با درختان بدون آلودگی به ارس‌واش بودند (به‌ترتیب 1/3 متر، 1/2 متر، 1/24 سانتی‌متر، 1/4 متر مربع). فراوانی خشکیدگی سرشاخه‌ها نیز به‌طور معنی‌داری در درختان مبتلا بسیار بیشتر از درختان سالم بود که نشان می‌دهد تحت تأثیر هجوم ارس‌واش ایجاد شده است. بر‌اساس نتایج آنالیز تشخیص نیز شدت فرسایش در زیر تاج‌پوشش، بیرون‌زدگی ریشه، قطر یقه، سطح مقطع درختان در هکتار، قطر تاج و ارتفاع درختان ارس مهم‌ترین عواملی هستند که در توصیف شدت ابتلا به ارس‌واش اثرگذارند.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که درختان بزرگ‌تر و به‌عبارتی مسن‌تر، بیشتر در معرض ابتلا به گیاه انگلی ارس‌واش قرار دارند. درختان ارسی که مقادیر بیشتری از بیرون‌زدگی ریشه‌ها و فرسایش خاک در سطح زیرین تاج‌پوشش خود دارند (دو فاکتور بیانگر چرای دام)، شدت تهاجم بیشتری از این گیاه انگلی را نیز نشان می‌دهند و این موضوع اثر مضاعف تنش چرای دام بر درختان مبتلا را تأیید می‌کند. بنابراین ارائۀ روش‌های غیرمخرب کنترل ارس‌واش با رویکرد حفاظت بیشتر از کانون‌های با درختان مسن و بزرگ ارس، باید در اولویت قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Infection of juniper trees (Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb.) to juniper dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium oxycedri (D.C.) M. Bieb.) in forests of Miankouh Tash protected area, Shahroud

نویسندگان [English]

  • D Kartoolinejad 1
  • H Ravanbakhsh 2
  • Z. Fadaei 3
  • A.R. Moshki 3
  • E. Nikouee 4
1 Assistant Prof,, Faculty of Desert Studies, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.
2 Assistant Prof., Research Institute of Forest and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran.
3 M.Sc. Graduate Student of Forest Biology, Faculty of Desert Studies, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.
4 Ph.D. Student of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran. Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction and Objective: Juniper stands, renowned for their ecological role, are facing a recent threat from the proliferation of a parasitic plant known as the juniper dwarf mistletoe, scientifically named Arceuthobium oxycedri. The primary objective of this study is to assess the extent of this disease among juniper trees in the Miankoh Tash region.
Materials and Methods: A 250×250-meter grid was systematically established, comprising 65 square-shaped sample plots, each measuring 20×20 meters. Within each sample plot, various quantitative characteristics of juniper trees, such as tree height, crown diameter, collar diameter, canopy coverage percentage, and the presence of branch dieback, were meticulously measured. Furthermore, habitat factors, including elevation, slope, geographical direction, soil erosion status beneath the juniper crown (classified into four categories), and tree root exposure (classified into three categories), were meticulously documented. The collected data underwent analysis utilizing both univariate and discriminant analysis techniques.
Results: Our results suggest that the gender of the host individuals, slope percentage, and geographical direction had no significant impact on the severity of infection. However, infected host trees displayed higher average values in tree height (5 meters), crown diameter (3.7 meters), collar diameter (54.7 cm), and crown area (12.8 square meters) compared to healthy junipers (3.1 m, 2.1 m, 24.1 cm, and 4.1 m², respectively). Moreover, the frequency of branch dieback, a common symptom of dwarf mistletoe invasion, was notably higher in infected trees. Discriminant analysis identified several key indicators of juniper dwarf mistletoe severity, including the severity of erosion under the canopy, root exposure, collar diameter of trees, collar diameter of trees per hectare, crown diameter, and tree height.
Conclusion: The study concludes that larger, and thus older, trees are more susceptible to juniper dwarf mistletoe infection. Additionally, juniper trees with increased root exposure and soil erosion on their canopy surface, indicative of livestock overgrazing, exhibit a heightened susceptibility to parasitic plant invasion. This underscores the compounding effects of livestock grazing pressure on host trees. Therefore, prioritizing non-destructive methods to control juniper dwarf mistletoe, particularly in areas with old and large juniper trees, is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dwarf mistletoe
  • forest conservation
  • hemiparasite
  • infection severity
  • host tree
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